Conditionals and loops#

Last updated: 2023-02-25 13:36:19


In the previous chapter (see Python basics), we leaned to create, access, and modify Python’s basic data structures. In this chapter, we are going to learn several important techniques of writing code, thus expanding our set of tools for writing Python code beyond simple data creation and access.

First, we are going to learn about control flow, a term that encompasses two techniques:

  • Conditionals—methods for conditional code execution, such as if-else conditionals (see Conditionals)

  • Loops—methods for repeated code execution, such as for loops (see for loops)

Then, we introduce the basic methods for reading plain text files (Working with files), and a more specific method to read the tabular CSV format (Reading CSV files). As we will see, these methods involve both flow control techniques:

  • Loops—to go over the lines in a file, one by one, and

  • Conditionals—to do something with only those lines that satisfy a given condition.

Finally, we learn about:


The if conditional#

Conditionals are used to condition the execution of a particular code section based on a criterion. For example, the following expression prints "It's hot!" only if latitude is smaller than 66.5. We are using the print function to explicitly indicate that the value needs to be printed:

if latitude < 66.5:
    print("It's hot!")

Note the syntax of the if conditional:

if condition:

The if keyword is followed a condition, which should be a boolean value, or an expression that can be evaluated as a boolean value, ending with a colon (:). Next comes a block of code, comprised of one or more expressions and marked by indentation. If condition is True, the block of code is executed. If condition is False, the block of code is ignored.

For example, if latitude is equal to 31.25, then latitude<66.5 returns True. Therefore, the print expression would be excuted, printing the string It's hot! in the console:

latitude = 31.25  # Latitude of Beer-Sheva, Israel
if latitude < 66.5:
    print("It's hot!")
It's hot!

If latitude is 77.5, then the expression latitude<66.5 returns False. Therefore, the print expression is ignored, and nothing happens:

latitude = 71.5  # Latitude of Nuugaatsiaq, Greenland
if latitude < 66.5:
    print("It's hot!")

The if-else conditional#

The if conditional may optionally be expanded, adding the else keyword followed by a second code block:

if condition:

In this if-else variant, one of the two code blocks is always executed. If condition is True then the first code block is executed. If condition is False, then the second code block is executed. Here are examples of these two scenarios, respectively:

latitude = 31.25  # Latitude of Beer-Sheva, Israel
if latitude < 66.5:
    print("It's hot!")
    print("It's cold!")
It's hot!
latitude = 71.5  # Latitude of Nuugaatsiaq, Greenland
if latitude < 66.5:
    print("It's hot!")
    print("It's cold!")
It's cold!

Indentation in Python#

As mentioned above, the expressions that follow if and else are indented. This is not a coincidence. In fact, Python recognizes multi-line code blocks through indentation. For example, in the context of a conditional, indentation is our way to tell the Python interpreter “these expressions belong to the if statement”. You can use any number of spaces or tabs for indentation, as long as you are consistent. The convention, however, is to use four spaces for each level of indentation. For example, consider the following example which has several expressions inside two levels of indentation:

x = -2
if x >= 0:
    if x == 0:
        print('Positive number')
    print('Negative number')
Negative number

In many other programming languages (such as R and JavaScript) indentation is ignored by the computer, and code sections are marked by other means (such as { and }). In Python, indentation is the only way to mark code sections. Therefore, when writing Python code you must pay close attention to indentation. Make sure there is no unnecessary indentation, and that indentation is uniform (preferably using four spaces).

As we will see later on, marking code sections using indentation is not specific to conditionals. It is also used in all other contexts where we need to mark a code block, such as in for loops (see for loops), in file contexts (see Using contexts (with)), and in function definitions (see Defining functions).

for loops#

What are for loops?#

Loops are used to run a particular code section more than once. For example, we may want to apply the same calculation for every element in a list (see Lists (list)), for each of 100 separate files, and so on. Python has two types to loops, namely:

  • while loops—A (potentially) infinite loop with a stopping condition

  • for loops—An iteration over a sequence

In this book we focus on for loops, which is by far the most useful type of loop when working with data.

for loops are used to iterate over sequences. This means that the for loop executes a particular code section for each item in the sequence. Often, the code section does something with each particular “item” in the sequence. The “sequence” we iterate over is often a list, but it can also be a tuple, a dictionary, a set, or a string.

As we will see later on, for loops can even be used to iterate over sequences generated in “real-time”, such as lines read one-by-one from a file (Working with files), which means we can process very large data structures without loading all data into memory at once.

The for loop syntax#

The syntax of a for loop is as follows:

for i in sequence:

Note the following components:

  • The for keyword

  • Name of the variable that gets consecutive values (i)

  • The in keyword

  • The object where consecutive values come from (sequence). This is typically a “collection” data type such as a list or tuple (see Data types—overview), or another type of iterable object (i.e., that can be iterated) such as a range object (see The range function), or a file connection (see Reading CSV files).

  • Colon (:)

  • Code block that gets executed in each iteration, typically using the current value (i)

Here is an example of a for loop:

fruits = ['Orange', 'Banana', 'Mango', 'Apple']
for i in fruits:

In this example, we go over the elements of a list named fruits. For each element i, we execute the expression print(i). As a result, we get a consecutive printout of all elements in fruits.

Exercise 03-a

  • Define a list named lunch, as shown below.

  • Use a for loop and conditionals to create a dictionary with the count of each item in lunch.

  • Hint: create an empty dictionary, then use a for loop to go over the items, and a conditional to add a new item with count 1 (if it is not yet in the dictionary), or to increment an existing item count.

  • Answer: {'Salad':2,'Egg':1,'Beef':1,'Potato':3,'Tea':1,'Coffee':1}

lunch = [

Using enumerate#

Sometimes we need to work with both the index and value of the sequence we iterate on. To do that, we can encompass the sequence inside enumerate. That way, each value becomes a tuple of the form (index,value). For example, we are going to use enumerate when stacking raster bands from separate files (see Stacking raster bands), where the for loop requires both:

  • the value (file name to read from), and

  • the index (index of the raster band to write into).

Here is an example of using enumerate in a for loop. The difference, compared to the last example, is that the sequence we iterate on is now enumerate(fruits), instead of just fruits:

for i in enumerate(fruits):
(0, 'Orange')
(1, 'Banana')
(2, 'Mango')
(3, 'Apple')

Here is the last value of i:

(3, 'Apple')

We can see that it is indeed a tuple, using type:


If necessary, we can modify the starting point of the indices (default is 0), using the start parameter of enumerate. For example:

for i in enumerate(fruits, start=1):
(1, 'Orange')
(2, 'Banana')
(3, 'Mango')
(4, 'Apple')

Finally, we can also split the indices and values into separate variables, so that we do not need to deal with tuples. For example, in the following version we have the variables index and value to access the index and value in each for loop iteration:

for index, value in enumerate(fruits, start=1):

Working with files#


Python provides built-in methods for reading (and writing) plain text files, such as CSV, using a line-by-line iteration. Although we will later learn abount a concise approach to read CSV files, all at once, using the pandas package (see Reading from file), the basic approach which we learn in this section has some advantages, and therefore worthwhile to be familiar with. Specifically:

  • Using external packages, such as pandas, may be impossible in some situations, such as systems that are not connected to the internet or have other security restrictions that prevent downloading and installation of third-party packages. In some situations we may wish to limit reliance on third-party packages for other reasons, such as making our code as reproducible and stable as possible.

  • Reading a file by iterating along rows has a very small memory footprint, since only the current row is stored in memory at any given time. This makes it possible to process huge files that cannot fit into memory all at once.

Before we move on to a more specific example of reading a CSV file (see Reading CSV files), let us go over a minimal example which works with any type of plain text file (not just CSV) and demonstrates the general principles of reading a file in Python, namely the concepts of a file connection object, and reading one line at a time.

File object and reading lines#

To read from a text file in Python, we first need to create a file connection object, using the open function. The open function has three important arguments:

  • The file path, such as "data/gtfs/stops.txt" (see File paths)

  • The mode, typically "r" for text reading mode (the default), or "w" for text writing mode

  • The encoding, such as "utf-8" or "utf-8-sig"

The concept of file encoding deserves a few notes. In general, encoding defines how the information in the file is interpreted by the computer. In order for the information to be interpreted correctly, the encoding setting must match to the encoding which was used when creating the file in the first place. If the encoding is left unspecified, the system default will be used. In case the system default does not match the file encoding, the contents may be interpreted incorrectly, or there may be an error and contents will not be read at all. Anyone working with data, especially in languages other than English, will encounter this situation sooner or later. The problem is that text files, including CSV, do not always store the encoding specification internally, as part of the file. In such case, the user must figure out the right encoding from context (such as metadata, if any), or through trial and error.

UTF-8 is the most widely used file encoding when working with data. All CSV sample data files we use in this book are encoded in UTF-8. The difference between "utf-8" or "utf-8-sig" is that the latter specifies the input file has a Byte Order Mark (BOM) signature, namely \ufeff. The BOM is omitted from the result when the right encoding is specified in open. For example, try opening the file connection with open('data/gtfs/stops.txt',encoding='utf-8'), then inspecting the contents of the first line (see below). You should see \ufeff at the beginning of the string.


For more information on the difference between 'utf-8' or 'utf-8-sig', check out the following threads:

For example, the following expression creates a connection to the file stops.txt from the sample data (see sample-data), in "r" (reading) mode, using the "utf-8-sig" encoding, which is the right encoding for this file. The file connection object is assigned to a variable named file:

file = open('data/gtfs/stops.txt', 'r', encoding='utf-8-sig')
<_io.TextIOWrapper name='data/gtfs/stops.txt' mode='r' encoding='utf-8-sig'>

To demonstrate reading from a file, we will will use the .readline method of the connection object. The .readline method reads one line at a time. For example, the following expression reads the first line in stops.txt, and assigns the resulting string to x:

x = file.readline()

Keep in mind that strings obtained from a text file may include special characters, such as newline (\n). These are interpreted when printing the string with print:


If we run .readline once again, we get the string with the contents of the second line in the file, and so on, until the final line is reached. Here, we are reading the next three lines (i.e., lines 2-4):

"1,38831,בי''ס בר לב/בן יהודה, רחוב:בן יהודה 74 עיר: כפר סבא רציף:   קומה:  ,32.183985,34.917554,0,,6900\n"
'2,38832,הרצל/צומת בילו, רחוב:הרצל  עיר: קרית עקרון רציף:   קומה:  ,31.870034,34.819541,0,,469\n'
'3,38833,הנחשול/הדייגים, רחוב:הנחשול 30 עיר: ראשון לציון רציף:   קומה:  ,31.984553,34.782828,0,,8300\n'

The stops.txt file is one of ten CSV files comprising the GTFS dataset (see the gtfs directory in the sample-data). The GTFS dataset describes public transport routes and timetables in Israel, in the standard format known as General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS). We are going to elaborate on the structure of the dataset later on (see What is GTFS?). In this chapter, we will only be working with the stops.txt file, which describes the public transport stops. For example, it contains the following columns we will be interested in:

  • stop_name—Stop name

  • stop_lat—Stop latitude, in decimal degrees

  • stop_lon—Stop longitude, in decimal degrees

Check out the printout of first line in the CSV file (see above) and detect the position of the names of those columns. Then, check out printout of rows 2-4 from the CSV, and detect the values of those three variables for the first three stops, according to their position inside the string, based on the facts that:

  • columns in a CSV file are separated by commas, and

  • the first line (usually) describes the order of the columns (see Reading CSV files).

For comparison, Fig. 22 shows how the file stops.txt looks like when opened in a spreadsheet software.


Fig. 22 The stops.txt file from the GTFS dataset when opened in a spreadsheet software (LibreOffice Calc)#

When we are done working with the file, the file connection needs to be closed using .close:


Closing a file connection is necessary to make sure that:

  • All information is actually written into the file (when in writing mode)

  • The memory is freed

We will learn about automated closing of file connections, using with, later on (see Using contexts (with)).

Reading CSV files#

Comma Separated Values (CSV) is a commonly used plain text format to store tabular data. In a CSV file, each line represents a table row, whereas column are separtated by commas (thus the “comma separated” part). The first line usually contains the column names, also separated by commas.

CSV files are a special case of plain text files, which means they can be read using general methods such as .readline as shown above (see File object and reading lines). However, there is also a more specialized method to read CSV files, namely the csv.DictReader function, combined with next, defined in the standard csv Python package. The advantage of csv.DictReader, compared to the general readlines method (see File object and reading lines), is that the CSV lines are automatically split by commas and placed into a dict where:

  • keys are the column names (by default, obtained from the first line)

  • values are the current row values

For example, the following code section reads and prints lines 2-4 in the stops.txt file:

import csv
file = open('data/gtfs/stops.txt', 'r', encoding='utf-8-sig')
reader = csv.DictReader(file)
row = next(reader)
row = next(reader)
row = next(reader)
row = next(reader)
{'stop_id': '1', 'stop_code': '38831', 'stop_name': "בי''ס בר לב/בן יהודה", 'stop_desc': ' רחוב:בן יהודה 74 עיר: כפר סבא רציף:   קומה:  ', 'stop_lat': '32.183985', 'stop_lon': '34.917554', 'location_type': '0', 'parent_station': '', 'zone_id': '6900'}
{'stop_id': '2', 'stop_code': '38832', 'stop_name': 'הרצל/צומת בילו', 'stop_desc': ' רחוב:הרצל  עיר: קרית עקרון רציף:   קומה:  ', 'stop_lat': '31.870034', 'stop_lon': '34.819541', 'location_type': '0', 'parent_station': '', 'zone_id': '469'}
{'stop_id': '3', 'stop_code': '38833', 'stop_name': 'הנחשול/הדייגים', 'stop_desc': ' רחוב:הנחשול 30 עיר: ראשון לציון רציף:   קומה:  ', 'stop_lat': '31.984553', 'stop_lon': '34.782828', 'location_type': '0', 'parent_station': '', 'zone_id': '8300'}
{'stop_id': '6', 'stop_code': '38836', 'stop_name': 'ת. מרכזית לוד/הורדה', 'stop_desc': ' רחוב:  עיר: לוד רציף:   קומה:  ', 'stop_lat': '31.956392', 'stop_lon': '34.898098', 'location_type': '0', 'parent_station': '', 'zone_id': '7000'}

Here is what is happening in the above code section:

  • First, we import the csv package (see Loading packages)

  • Next, we create a file connection object to the CSV file (see File object and reading lines)

  • Then, we create a “reader” object, applying the csv.DictReader function on the file connection

  • Then, we apply the next function on the csv.DictReader object, which reads one line at a time into a dict, consecutively going through rows 2-4 in the file

  • Finally, the file connection is closed with file.close

Note how, by default, the first row is assumed to be the header and therefore only used to obtain the keys. That is, the first use of next returns the 2nd row in the CSV file.


There is also a csv.reader method, which returns a list of row values (rather than a dict as in the case of csv.DictReader), including the first row (!). For example, try executing reader=csv.reader(file), and then, consecutively, next(reader). Accessing the CSV file values through list indices may be easier for files that have two or three columns. However, accessing the values through dict keys (i.e., the column names) is more convenient with files that have many columns (such as stops.txt).

Exercise 03-b

  • Create a new code cell with the expressions to open the file connection and to create the file reader.

  • Then create another cell with the expression next(reader).

  • Execute the second code cell repeatedly several times. You should see the contents of consecutive lines being read from the CSV file.

When reading a CSV file using csv.DictReader and next, each row in the CSV file is being read as a dict of strings (even if some of the values are numeric). For example, here is the contents of the 4th row in stops.txt:

{'stop_id': '6',
 'stop_code': '38836',
 'stop_name': 'ת. מרכזית לוד/הורדה',
 'stop_desc': ' רחוב:  עיר: לוד רציף:   קומה:  ',
 'stop_lat': '31.956392',
 'stop_lon': '34.898098',
 'location_type': '0',
 'parent_station': '',
 'zone_id': '7000'}

To get a particular value from a given row, we can use the ordinary method of accessing dict values (see Accessing dict values). For example, the following expression returns the value of the "stop_name" column:

'ת. מרכזית לוד/הורדה'

whereas the following expression returns the value of the "stop_lat" column (stop latitude):


from the current (4th) row in the CSV file.

Here is a slightly modified code block, which prints just the three values in the "stop_name" column, rather than the entire row:

import csv
file = open('data/gtfs/stops.txt', 'r', encoding='utf-8-sig')
reader = csv.DictReader(file)
row = next(reader)
row = next(reader)
row = next(reader)
בי''ס בר לב/בן יהודה
הרצל/צומת בילו

In practice, we usually need to go over the entire file, not just the first few rows, which means that using next through repeated separate expressions is impractical. Instead, we can use a for loop such as the following one:

import csv
file = open('data/gtfs/stops.txt', 'r', encoding='utf-8-sig')
reader = csv.DictReader(file)
for row in reader:
    x = row
    # Do something with each row

In each iteration of the for loop, the row object contains the dict with values from that particular row, which we can do something with.

Keep in mind that you can only go through a file connection, using methods such as .readline, next, or a for loop, or any combination of them, only once. When the file contents are “exhausted”, such as when trying to run a for loop on the same csv.DictReader for a second time, there will be no output. Similarly, if you run next to get the contents of the 2nd row (i.e., 1st excluding the header) in the file, and subsequently run a for loop on the same file connection, then the for loop will start from the 3rd row—because the 2nd was already read. In case you need to go over the file again, you can re-create the file connection.

Exercise 03-c

  • Calculate the number of rows (lines) in the stops.txt file, excluding the first row (answer: 28255).

  • Hint: Set a counter variable to zero, then increment it by 1 in each iteration of a for loop that goes over the rows.

Writing CSV files#

Writing to CSV files is conceptually similar to reading. We will not go into details, but here is a small self-contained example that you can try to get the idea:

import csv
file = open('output/packages.csv', 'w')
writer = csv.writer(file)
writer.writerow(['Package', 'Functionality', 'Website'])
writer.writerow(['numpy', 'Arrays', ''])
writer.writerow(['pandas', 'Tables', ''])
writer.writerow(['shapely', 'Vector geometries', ''])
writer.writerow(['geopandas', 'Vector layers', ''])
writer.writerow(['rasterio', 'Rasters', ''])

The above code section reproduces and writes the contents of Table 1 into a CSV file named "csv_write_test.csv" in the "output" directory. Beware that opening a file in writing "w" mode deletes the original file contents in case the file already exists!


The above code uses csv.writer, which is analogous to csv.reader, as both work with lists. Perhaps you can guess that there is also a csv.DictWriter function, which is analogous to csv.DictReader (see Reading CSV files)—both working with dictionaries.

Using contexts (with)#

When opening a file to do something with it, such as reading from it, we need to open it at the beginning and then .close it at the end (see File object and reading lines). This is essential to make sure that memory is freed and all information pending to be written is actually written.

To make sure we do not forget to “close” a file connection, Python has the with method to create a file connection context. The with expression is followed by a code block where we do something with the file connection. After the code block is completed, the file connection is automatically closed.

For example, instead of the for loop from the last example (see Reading CSV files):

import csv
file = open('data/gtfs/stops.txt', 'r', encoding='utf-8-sig')
reader = csv.DictReader(file)
for row in reader:
    x = row
    # Do something with each row

we can do this:

with open('data/gtfs/stops.txt', 'r', encoding='utf-8-sig') as file:
    reader = csv.DictReader(file)
    for row in reader:
        x = row
        # Do something with each row

Namely, instead of open and close, we have a code block that begins with with open(...) as file:, followed by the same code as before excluding the .close part.

Exercise 03-d

  • Calculate the range of longitudes and latitudes of all stops in the stops.txt file, i.e., the bounding box of the point layer that the file represents: \(lon_{min}\), \(lat_{min}\), \(lon_{max}\), and \(lat_{max}\).

  • Print the result as an array of the form [xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax].

  • Go through the following steps:

    • Define a variable named xmin to hold the value of \(lon_{min}\). Initialize it with the value of stop_lon from the first row of data (i.e., the second row in the file!).

    • Use a for loop to go over the rows of stops.txt. Inside the for loop, use a conditional to check whether the stop_lon value from the current row in stops.txt is smaller than the current value of xmin. If it is, replace xmin with the stop_lon value. If it is not, do nothing.

    • When the loop ends, xmin should contain the minimal value from the stop_lon column in the stops.txt file.

    • Once your code works properly for xmin, expand it to do the same for the other three variables (ymin, xmax, and ymax) to hold the values \(lat_{min}\), \(lon_{max}\), and \(lat_{max}\), respectively. Make sure you use the right type of conditional (smaller/larger) and the right variable (stop_lon/stop_lat) when calculating each variable.

    • Finally, collect the four values (xmin, ymin, xmax, and ymax) into a list of the form [xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax] (answer: [34.284672, 29.492193, 35.839108, 34.917554]).

The range function#

The range function is used to generate a sequence of values, given:

  • start—Start value (inclusive), default is 0

  • stop—Stop value (exclusive)

  • step—Step size, default is 1

If just one value is given, then it is passed to stop. Namely, range(stop) is equivalent to range(0,stop,1).

The range function is commonly used with for loops (see for loops), to iterate over a sequence of numbers. For example:

for i in range(5):

Tecnically, the output of range is a generator, a special type of object that generates values on demand:

range(0, 5)

To “force” the generation of all values at once, we can wrap the range object inside a list:

[0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

Exercise 03-e

  • Which expression do we need to use to get a sequence of all even numbers between 0 and 30, i.e., 0, 2, …, 30?


When working with Python loops and iteration, you will eventually encounter the technical terms iterable, iterator, and generator. The definitions and distinction can be confusing, so here is a short summary. The terms are hereby ordered from most general to most specific:

  • An iterable is any object that can be iterated, such as in a for loop. For example, a list is iterable, therefore if we have a list x we can use for i in x: to iterate on all elements i of x.

  • An iterator is an object that represents a stream of data, which we can go over, each time getting the next element using next. For example, file reader objects, such as the ones created with csv.DictReader (see Reading CSV files), are iterators.

  • A generator is a function that returns an iterator. For example, csv.DictReader is a generator.

For a discussion about the difference between iterable, iterator, and generator, check out the following threads:

List comprehension#

Often, we are interested in creating a list that contains results coming from a for loop operating on another list. For example, suppose that we have a list named x:

x = [5, 7, 10, -2]

and we need to produce a new list named y where each element of x is multiplied by 2. Using the ordinary for loop methods (see for loops), here is how it can be done:

y = []
for i in x:
[10, 14, 20, -4]

Python has a convenient and commonly used shortcut to do just that, called list comprehension. Using list comprehension, here is how we can do the same task:

y = [i*2 for i in x]
[10, 14, 20, -4]

The syntax and concept are fairly similar to an ordinary for loop, just more concise. For each element i in x, we calculate i*2. The enclosing brackets indicate that the results are collected into a new list.

Defining functions#

Function definition#

Defining a function is the basic mechanism to minimize code repetition in programming. When you are doing the same task repetitively, e.g., in different parts of the same script, or in different scripts, it does not makes sense to type the same code several times. Instead, you can define a function in one place, then call the function anywhere you need.

The structure of a function definition in Python is as follows:

def function_name(parameter1, parameter2, ...):
    return value

Note the following components:

  • The function is initialized using the def keyword.

  • Next comes the function name (e.g., function_name), of our choice, followed by zero or more parameters in parentheses (e.g., parameter1 and parameter2) separated by commas.

  • Finally, we have an indented code block which is the body of the function.

  • Inside the code block, we may have one or more return statements which terminate the function and return the specified value.

The code block is where we define what the function does. In zero or more places in the code block we may insert the return keyword, followed by a value that the function should return (e.g., value). When the interpreter reaches a return statement, the function terminates. Without any return statements, the function returns None (see None (None)).

For example, the following code section defines a function named divide, which has two parameters a and b. The function divides a by b and returns the result:

def divide(a, b):
    return a / b

Once the function is defined, we can call the function to actually use it. If the function has any parameters, then we need to specify them as part of the function call, in parentheses (unless they are associated with default values, see below Default arguments). The specified values are called arguments. For example, the following function call executes divide, with the arguments 10 and 4. The returned value is 2.5:

divide(10, 4)

The latter argument specification is known as positional arguments, because the arguments are matched with the parameters by position:

  • 10 is matched with the first parameter a

  • 4 is matched with the second parameter b

Using a different order of positional arguments will result in a different matching:

divide(4, 10)

We can also specify the matching between arguments and parameters “manually”, which is known as keyword arguments. In this case, any order of arguments can be used:

divide(a=10, b=4)
divide(b=4, a=10)

Local vs. global variables#

It is important to understand the distinction between local and global variables. Any variable that is defined as part of the function code block (such as a and b, above) is local to that function. This means that it is not accessible in the global environment. You can try printing the value of a or b, resulting in a “not defined” error.

Conversely, global variables, that is, variables defined in the main part of the script outside of any function, are accessible anywhere, including in functions. However, this is considered bad practice because it makes the function dependent on the global context rather than self-contained.

Default arguments#

Default arguments, if any, are specified as part of the function definition. For example, here is how we can set the default argument of 2 for parameter b:

def divide(a, b=2):
    return a / b

Any arguments explicitly specified as part of the function call override the defaults:

divide(10, 4)

When an argument is unspecified in the function call, the default value is used. For example, divide(10) is equivalent divide(10,2):


Exercise 03-f

  • Write a function named circle_area that accepts a radius and returns the circle area (\(A=πr²\)).

  • You can use the built-in variable math.pi for the value of \(π\). For math.pi to be available, first import the math package using import math (see Loading packages).

  • Test your function by calling it with a specific value. For example, circle_area(5) should return 78.53982.

Variable-length positional arguments#

A special type of parameter, marking positional (i.e., unnamed) arguments of unknown length, can be specified with an asterisk. Conventionally, the variable-length positional parameter is named *args (short for “arguments”), though you can use any name, such as *x. This special parameter “collects” all arguments passed to the function into a tuple (see Tuples (tuple)). Using *args is most useful when the number of arguments that the function needs to accept is unknown in advance (such as a function that combines multiple values).

For example, the following function accepts positional arguments *args, and just returns them without doing anything:

def f(*args):
    return args

When calling the function with any number of arguments, we can see that they are accessible inside the function body through the args local variable:

f(1, 4, "a")
(1, 4, 'a')

When we pass more arguments to the function, the tuple just includes more elements:

f(1, 4, "a", "b")
(1, 4, 'a', 'b')

Exercise 03-g

  • Write a function named paste that:

    • accepts any number of strings, integers, or floats, and

    • combines them into one long string and returns it.

  • For example:

    • paste("Hello","World") should return "HelloWorld"

    • paste("A","B","C",1,2,3) should return "ABC123"

  • Use variable-length positional arguments (*args) to make the function work with any number of inputs.

The variable-length positional arguments technique also works the other way around. Namely, when we pass a list or tuple preceded by an asterisk (*) to a function, as in f(*args) where args is a list or a tuple, the elements are interpreted as separate arguments.

For example, suppose that we have a function named f with four arguments:

def f(a, b, c, d):
    print(a, b, c, d)

When called in the usual way, we need to specify the four arguments, separately:

f(1, 2, 3, 4)
1 2 3 4

However, if we already have the arguments in a list, we can pass the list as-is, so that list elements are “mapped” to arguments a, b, c, d:

x = [1, 2, 3, 4]
1 2 3 4

which is equivalent to:

f(x[0], x[1], x[2], x[3])
1 2 3 4

but much shorter and more general.

We are going too use positional arguments when passing arguments to the function (see Bounds (shapely), Raster extent).

Variable-length keyword arguments#

Variable-length keyword arguments are similar in concept to their positional counterpart (Variable-length positional arguments), as both are used to pass an unknown number of arguments to a function. The difference is that variable-length keyword arguments need to be named. Accordingly, they are accessible inside the function as a dict (see Dictionaries (dict)), rather than a tuple. Keyword arguments are most useful when we need to flexibly pass named arguments, without restricting their number and their names in the function definition. Variable-length keyword arguments are marked with two asterisks, conventionally named **kwargs (short for “keyword arguments”), though you can use a different name.

For example, the following definition of the function f accepts keyword arguments:

def f(**kwargs):
    return kwargs

The function now accepts variable-length keyword arguments, which are collected into a dict named kwargs:

f(x=1, y=4, z="a")
{'x': 1, 'y': 4, 'z': 'a'}

Keyword arguments can also be used the other way around. Namely, the f(**kwargs) function calls, where kwargs is a distionary, is translated into f(key1=value1,key2=value2,...) for all key/value pairs in kwargs.

We are going to see an example of this technique later on, when using the function (see Stacking raster bands).

Lambda functions#

Other than the ordinary def syntax for defining a function (see Function definition), Python has another method to define functions called lambda functions. Here is how it looks like:

divide = lambda a, b: a / b
divide(10, 4)

Note the structure of the lambda function definition:

lambda parameter1, parameter2, ...: expression

Importantly, the function parameters come after the lambda keyword. Then, after a colon, there is a single expression. The result of the expression is returned by the function.

A lambda function can be assigned to a variable, such as divide in the above example. That way, the only advantage over the “ordinary” syntax (see Function definition), in situations when the function consists of a single expression, is slightly shorter code. However, another advantage of lambda functions is that they can be used immediately, witout assigning to a variable, which is known as an “anonymous” function. For example:

(lambda a, b: a / b)(10, 4)

The most useful feature of anonymous function is that we can pass them as arguments to other functions, without needing to define a function in a separate expression. This will become clear later on, when we encounter situations where we pass a function as an argument to another function (see apply and custom functions and Custom functions (agg)).

Example: distance function#

Here is an example of a more complex function definition, modified from a StackOverflow answer. The function, named distance,

  • accepts two lists, or tuples, of the form (lon,lat), and

  • returns the distance between them, in meters.

The distance function uses a distance approximation method known as the Harvesine formula. Here is the function definition:

import math
def distance(origin, destination):
    lon1, lat1 = origin
    lon2, lat2 = destination
    radius = 6371000
    dlat = math.radians(lat2 - lat1)
    dlon = math.radians(lon2 - lon1)
    a = (math.sin(dlat / 2) * math.sin(dlat / 2) +
         math.cos(math.radians(lat1)) * math.cos(math.radians(lat2)) *
         math.sin(dlon / 2) * math.sin(dlon / 2))
    c = 2 * math.atan2(math.sqrt(a), math.sqrt(1 - a))
    d = radius * c
    return d

We are not going to get into the mathematical details of the distance calculation according to the Harvesine formula. However, note the gneral structure of the function, most importantly:

  • the first line def distance(origin,destination): which specifies the function name and the list of parameters, and

  • the last line return d which returns the result.

Also note the expression import math, right before the function definition. Importing the standard math package is required since the distance function code uses several mathematical functions, namely math.radians, math.sin, math.cos, math.atan2, and math.sqrt.

Once the distance function is defined, we can call it with specific arguments, to calculate the approximate distance (in meters) between any given points. For example, the distance between two points separated be one decimal degree on the equator is about 111,194 m, or 111.2 km:

distance((0, 0), (1, 0))

The distance between two points separated be one decimal degree on latitude of 80 degrees, however, is only about 19.3 km:

distance((0, 80), (1, 80))

Exercise 03-h

  • How can the above function be modified to return the rounded distance in meters? Modify the function code and try running the modified version to make sure it works.

More exercises#

Exercise 03-i

  • Find the row that represents the southernmost bus station in Israel, i.e., the one that has the minimal value in the stop_lat column, according to the file stops.txt.

  • Hint: initialize two variables, one to store the currently southernmost row, and one to store the currently minimal latitude (initialized with the latitude of the first stop in the file). Then, as part of the loop that goes over the remaining rows, use a conditional to check whether the current latitude is smaller than the minimal one. If it is, replace the current southernmost row with the current row, and replace the currently minimal latitude with the current latitude.

  • What kind of change do you need to make in your code to calcualate the nothernmost bus station instead?

  • Answer:

{'stop_id': '12510',
 'stop_code': '10615',
 'stop_name': 'מעבר גבול טאבה',
 'stop_desc': ' רחוב:דרך מצרים 168 עיר: אילת רציף:   קומה:  ',
 'stop_lat': 29.492193,
 'stop_lon': '34.904373',
 'location_type': '0',
 'parent_station': '',
 'zone_id': '2600'}

Exercise 03-j

  • Count the number of cities in each “quadrat” of the world, according the the table of world cities coordinates in the file world_cities.csv. The table contains a list of all major world cities, with city coordinate values in the long (longitude) and lat (latitude) columns.

  • Quadrats are defined as follows:

    • North-East: long>0 and lat>0

    • North-West: long<0 and lat>0

    • South-East: long>0 and lat<0

    • South-West: long<0 and lat<0

  • Store the results in a dictionary and print it.

  • Answer: {'ne': 28485, 'nw': 10026, 'se': 2689, 'sw': 2445}